Shells and arcs of gas and dust surround Betelgeuse, the star that represents the shoulder of Orion, the hunter, in this view from Herschel Space Telescope. The star expelled the clouds of material, which flatten out as they ram into gas from other stars. Betelgeuse is a supergiant star, which is much larger and more massive than the Sun. It will end its life as a supernova, blasting its outer layers to bits while its core is crushed to form a neutron star. [ESA/Herschel/PACS/L. Decin et al]
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Big stars tend to be a bit messy. They blow strong “winds” into space, surrounding themselves with dense clouds of gas and dust. These expanding clouds can ram into the material between stars, piling it up to form denser clouds.
Consider Betelgeuse, the bright orange shoulder of Orion, the hunter. It’s well up in the western sky at nightfall, above Orion’s “belt” of three stars.
Betelgeuse is many times heavier than the Sun. That enormous mass squeezes the star’s core tightly, producing intense heat that revs up the nuclear reactions that power the star. Energy from these reactions pushes the surrounding layers of gas outward, causing the star to puff up. In fact, Betelgeuse is about a thousand times wider than the Sun.
The star’s surface gravity is tiny compared to the Sun's, so radiation and magnetic fields drive dense winds of particles from the surface out into space. In a million years, these winds carry enough material to make a star as big as the Sun.
Recent observations have shown that the winds cool and condense to form giant shells and arcs around Betelgeuse. One shell is squeezed in the direction of Betelgeuse’s path around the center of the galaxy. That forms a bow shock, like water piling up in front of a ship.
And the clouds close to Betelgeuse are lumpy, suggesting that the wind sometimes blows stronger and thicker from some parts of the star than others - enhancing the “messy” appearance of this giant star.
Script by Damond Benningfield, Copyright 2013