Pioneer Probes

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Pioneer 10 and 11 blazed the trail to the outer solar system during the 1970s. Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to visit any planet beyond the asteroid belt when it flew past Jupiter on December 3, 1973. Pioneer 10 found that Jupiter's interior is hotter than previously thought, discovered that the planet's radiation belts are strong enough to kill a human being, and discovered that Jupiter's moon Io is embedded in a giant cloud of hydrogen that encircles Jupiter. Pioneer 11 flew past Jupiter a year later, then in 1979 became the first craft to encounter Saturn.

Resources

Saturn The planet Saturn is a delicate giant. Although...
Explorations of Outer Planets Pioneer 10 and 11 blazed the trail to the outer...

Radio Programs

Pioneer 10 at Jupiter Going eye-to-eye with a giant Tuesday, December 3, 2013
Destination Aquila An ambassador to the stars Friday, September 11, 2009

Featured Images

Where No (American) Probe Had Gone Before Tuesday, December 9, 2008

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